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Title: Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation Ch
Date: 2005.12.30
Legislative: Promulgated on July 29, 1970 by the Executive Yuan Per its
decree No. Tai59-Jiao-Tsu-6736
Amended and Promulgated on July 10, 1991 by the Executive Yuan
Per its decree No. Tai80-Ke-Tsu-22707
Amended and Promulgated on January 30, 2003 by the Atomic Energy
Council Per its decree No. Huei-Fu-Tsu-0920002499
Amended and Promulgated on December 30, 2005 by the Atomic
Energy Council Per its decree No. Huei-Fu-Tsu-0940041080
Content: Article 1
The Standards are stipulated pursuant to Article 5 of the
Ionizing Radiation Protection Act.

Article 2
The terms used in the Standards are defined as follows:
1.Nuclide refers to a species of atom characterized by its
   neutron number, proton number and nuclear energy state.
2.External exposure refers to body exposure due to irradiation
   by ionizing radiation from outside the body.
3.Internal exposure refers to exposure due to irradiation by
   ionizing radiation arising from the intake of radioactive
   material.
4.Activity refers to the number of spontaneous disintegrations
   occurring in a certain amount of radionuclides at a given time.
   The special name for the unit of activity is becquerel (Bq).
   One (1) spontaneous disintegration per second is one (1)
   becquerel.
5.Dose refers to the radiation energy or its equivalent absorbed
   by material.
   (1) Absorbed dose refers to the mean energy imparted by
        radiation per unit mass of material. The special name for
        the unit of absorbed dose is gray (Gy). One (1) joule
        imparted per kilogram of mass is one (1) gray.
   (2) Dose equivalent refers to the product of the absorbed dose
        of body tissue or organ multiplied by a quality factor.The
        special name for the unit of dose equivalent is sievert
        (Sv). The quality factors used for radiation protection
        are seen in Schedule I-1(1).
   (3) Personal dose equivalent refers to the dose equivalent in
        soft tissue at an appropriate depth below a specified
        point on the body from external exposure. The relevant
        depth is 10 mm for strongly penetrating radiation, 0.07
        mm for weakly penetrating radiation and 3 mm for the
        lens of the eye. The special name for the unit of personal
        dose equivalent is sievert.
   (4) Organ dose refers to the average absorbed dose in a unit
        mass of the tissue or organ. The special name for the unit
        of organ dose is gray.
   (5) Equivalent dose refers to the sum of the products of organ
        doses and their corresponding radiation weighting factors.
        The special name for the unit of equivalent dose is
        sievert. The radiation weighting factors are seen in
        Table I-1 of Schedule I-1(2).
   (6) Committed equivalent dose refers to the integration of
        equivalent dose rate in a particular tissue or organ
        following an intake of radioactive material over a time
        period. The period of integration is 50 years for those of
        age over 17. For those 17 or younger, the integration will
        be taken to age 70. The special name for the unit of
        committed equivalent dose is sievert.
   (7) Effective dose refers to the sum of the products of
        equivalent doses and their corresponding tissue weighting
        factors in all the exposed tissues and organs of the body.
        The special name for the unit of effective dose is sievert.
        The tissue weighting factors are seen in Table I-2 of
        Schedule I-2.
   (8) Committed effective dose refers to the sum of the products
        of committed equivalent doses and their corresponding
        tissue weighting factors for all the exposed tissues and
        organs of the body. The special name for the unit of
        committed effective dose is sievert.
   (9) Collective effective dose refers to the sum of effective
        doses received by a specific group of population exposed
        to a certain radiation source. It also means the product
        of the total number of population exposed to a certain
        radiation source and the average effective dose of
        individuals in the population. The special name for the
        unit of collective effective dose is man-sievert.
6.Reference man refers to an idealized adult representing an
   aggregation of human physical and physiological
   characteristics proposed by the International Commission on
   Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the purpose of radiation
   protection assessment.
7.Annual limit on intake (ALI) refers to the intake of a given
   radionuclide in one (1) year by the reference man that would
   result in
   (1) a committed effective dose of 50 mSv, or
   (2) a committed equivalent dose of 500 mSv to any tissue or
       organ,whichever is the smaller.
8.Derived air concentration (DAC) refers to the derived
   concentration of a given radionuclide in a cubic meter of
   air. If a reference man breathes in air with such a
   concentration for two thousand hours (2000 h) while doing
   light work, the intake would amount to one (1) ALI.
9.The health effects of radiation are categorized as follows: 
   (1) Deterministic effect: referring to an effect of
        functional loss of the tissue or organ, whose degree of
        severity increases in proportion to the magnitude of the
        dose received. A threshold dose may exist for this type of
        effect.
   (2) Stochastic effect: referring to an effect of
        carcinogenesis and heredity, whose probability of
        occurrence increases in proportion to the magnitude of the
        dose received, and is independent of its severity. There
        is no threshold dose for the occurrence of this type of
        effect.
10.As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
    Observing the ALARA means making every reasonable effort
    to maintain, in a practical way, radiation exposure far below
    the dose limits of the Standards. Key principles are:
    (1) the activity must be consistent with the original
         permission;
    (2) the present state of technology, public health improvement,
         the economic benefits of safety, and societal and
         socioeconomic factors must be taken into account; and
    (3) the use of radiation must be in the public interests.
11.Critical group refers to a group of people
    (1) representing the general public;
    (2) who receive rather uniform exposure from a known
         radiation source or a group of radiation sources; and
    (3) whose members have received the maximum dose.
12.Human body tissue equivalent sphere (ICRU sphere) refers to
     a sphere of 300 millimeters in diameter made of tissue
     equivalent material with a density of 1 mg.mm-3 and a mass
     composition of 76.2% oxygen, 11.1% carbon, 10.1% hydrogen
     and 2.6% nitrogen.

Article 3
Formulas for calculating the activity, absorbed dose, personal
dose equivalent, organ dose, equivalent dose, committed
equivalent dose, effective dose, committed effective dose and
collective effective dose, as defined in Article 2,
are specified in Schedule II.

Article 4
Paragraph 4.1
The effective dose specified in Article 2.5.(7) may be acquired
by the measurement or calculation of the sum of personal dose
equivalent caused by strongly penetrating radiation and
committed effective dose by intake of radionuclides.
Paragraph 4.2
The sum of doses received by an individual resulting from
internal and external exposures is not required, if the personal
dose equivalent from strongly penetrating radiation or the
committed effective dose from intake of radionuclides as stated
in Paragraph 4.1 does not exceed 2 mSv in a year.

Article 5
Paragraph 5.1
The radiation warning symbol is shown in the following diagram
with yellow background and three-blade design in magenta, where
R is the radius of the inner circle.
Paragraph 5.2
The colors of the symbol background and the three-blade design
are not restricted by the prescription in Paragraph 5.1, if the
radiation warning symbol is made in a special way such as
etching or hard press. An appropriate warning content may be
placed on the warning symbol or at a nearby eye-catching
position if required.

Article 6
Paragraph 6.1
The practice shall prevent the occurrence of deterministic
effects and lower the probability of stochastic effects so as
to achieve the goal of limiting radiation dose. The practice
shall also be in compliance with the following rules:
1.the benefit shall exceed the cost;
2.all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable,
   economic and social factors being taken into account; and
3.the individual dose shall not exceed the limits specified in
   the Standards.
Paragraph 6.2
The individual dose as stated in Subparagraph 6.1.3 refers to
the sum of doses received by an individual resulting from
external and internal exposures. Doses occurring from
background radiation and medical exposures are not included.

Article 7
Paragraph 7.1
The dose limits of occupational exposure for radiation workers
are specified as follows:
1.the effective dose shall not exceed 100 mSv over a cycle of
   five (5) consecutive years, and not exceed 50 mSv in any
   single year;
2.the equivalent dose to the lens of the eye shall not exceed
   150 mSv in a year; and
3.the equivalent dose to skin or extremities shall not exceed
   500 mSv in a year.
Paragraph 7.2
The first of the 5-year cycle as described in Subparagraph
7.1.1 shall start from January 1st, 2003.

Article 8
Paragraph 8.1
The employer shall follow the methods as stipulated in Schedule
III or others approved by the Competent Authority to confirm the
doses received by the radiation worker meet the regulatory
requirements in Article 7.
Paragraph 8.2
The DAC values used for regulation reference of internal
exposure of a radiation worker, are seen in Schedule IV-1.

Article 9
Paragraph 9.1
Under special circumstances, if ALARA evaluation reveals that
the dose limits in Subparagraph 7.1.1 of occupational exposure
in a practice can not be met, the employer and the facility
operator may apply for permission in advance for lifting the
effective dose limit of 100 mSv over a cycle of five (5)
consecutive years under approved conditions. The following  
information is required to be submitted to the Competent
Authority for approval:
1.content of the practice, workplace, duration, and a name list
   of radiation workers;
2.possible maximum individual effective dose, collective
   effective dose and the evaluation models;
3.the ALARA measures;
4.a letter of consent from workers stating agreement to receive
   the dose value; and
5.radiation protection plan.
Paragraph 9.2
The practice as stated in Paragraph 9.1 shall meet the following
requirements:
1.the employer and the facility operator shall inform the
   involved workers of the possible risk and the necessary
   protective actions in advance;
2.without a justified reason and the consent of the worker, the
   employer shall not exclude the worker to join routine work or
   make adjustment of his/her job position because the worker
   received dose in excess of the occupational dose limit as
   stated in Subparagraph 7.1.1; and
3.the dose received in this case shall be recorded and separated
   from the dose received under routine occupational exposure.

Article 10
For those of 16 to 18 years of age who receive education for
taking practice or job training, the annual individual dose
limits are in accordance with the following rules:
1.an effective dose shall not exceed 6 mSv;
2.an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye shall not exceed 50
   mSv; and
3.an equivalent dose to skin or extremeties shall not exceed 150
   mSv. 

Article 11
Paragraph 11.1
The employer, upon being informed of a female worker’s
pregnancy, shall review her working conditions to ensure that
the exposure received by the embryo or fetus is afforded the
same broad level of protection as required for members of the
public.
Paragraph 11.2
For the female radiation worker who has notified pregnancy, the
equivalent dose to her abdominal surface shall not exceed 2 mSv,
and the committed effective dose resulted from the intake of
radionuclides shall not exceed 1 mSv during the remainder of the
pregnancy.

Article 12
The annual dose limits for the member of the public that are
attributable to practices are:
1.an effective dose shall not exceed 1 mSv;
2.an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye shall not exceed 15
   mSv; and
3.an equivalent dose to skin shall not exceed 50 mSv.

Article 13
Paragraph 13.1
The dose to the member of the public during planning, designing
and practicing by the facility operator shall be in compliance
with the dose limits as specified in Article 12.
Paragraph 13.2
The facility operator shall take one of the following two ways
to prove that the practice is in compliance with the dose limits
for the member of the public specified in Article 12:
1.the dose received by an individual in a critical group as
   calculated using Schedule III or modeling is in compliance
   with the dose limits in Article 12; or
2.the radionuclide concentrations in air and water at the
   boundary of a radiation workplace as a result of released
   gaseous or liquid waste containing radioactive material do not
   exceed the concentrations specified in Schedule IV-2, and a
   resultant dose from external exposure to the general public
   outside the radiation workplace does not exceed 0.02 mSv in
   an hour and 0.5 mSv in a year.

Article 14
Liquid waste containing radioactive material shall be in
compliance with the following rules before it is released into
sewers:
1.the radioactive material must be soluble in water;
2.for radioactive material released into sewers in any single
   month, the ratio for the total activity to the amount of water
   shall not exceed the concentrations specified in Schedule IV-2;
   and
3.the total activity of radioactive material released into
   sewers in a year shall not exceed 1.85E+11 Bq of tritium,
   3.7E+10 Bq of carbon-14 and 3.7E+10 Bq of all other
   radioactive materials combined.

Article 15
Under special circumstances, the facility operator may submit
the following information in advance  for approval by the
Competent Authority to lift the restriction in Article 12.1,
provided that the effective dose of the general public shall not
exceed 5 mSv in one (1) year, and the average annual effective
dose shall not exceed 1 mSv in five (5) consecutive years: 
1.description of the purpose, time duration and dose assessment
   of the practice; and
2.dose control for members of the public and ALARA measures.

Article 16
In order to keep collective effective dose as low as reasonably
achievable, the Competent Authority can further restrict
radiation dose in the area outside the radiation workplace or
released amount of radioactive material in the radiation
workplace.

Article 17
Paragraph 17.1
The action being taken for emergency exposure shall be in
compliance with one of the following conditions:
1.for the purpose of saving lives or preventing serious injury; 
2.to avert a large amount of collective effective dose; or
3.to prevent the development of catastrophic conditions.
Paragraph 17.2
The facility operator shall inform and train the personnel
participating in emergency exposure in advance.

Article 18
Paragraph 18.1
The facility operator shall make every reasonable effort to have
the dose to the participants in emergency exposure complied with
the following rules:
1.for the purpose of saving lives, the dose to the participants
   in emergency exposure shall, to the extent possible, not
   exceed ten (10) times the dose limit in a single year in
   Subparagraph 7.1.1; and
2.except for the case in Subparagraph 18.1.1, the dose to the
   participants in emergency exposure shall, to the extent
   possible, not exceed two (2) times the dose limit in a single
   year in Subparagraph 7.1.1. 
Paragraph 18.2
For the personnel participating in emergency exposure, except
those specified in Paragraph 17.1, the dose received shall not
exceed those specified in Article 7. 
Paragraph 18.3
The dose received from emergency exposure shall be recorded and
separated from the dose received under routine occupational
exposure.

Article 19
The Standards are not applicable to the release of medium used
for scintillation counting, which contains tritium or carbon-14
with an activity less than 1.85E+10 Bq.g-1.

Article 20
The Standards are not applicable to the discard of animal
tissue or carcass containing tritium or carbon-14 with an
activity less than 1.85E+10 Bq.g-1.

Article 21
The Standards shall become effective on the date of
promulgation, except for the revised Article 2 through Article
7 Paragraph 7.1 and Article 8 through Article 18, which shall
become effective on January 1st, 2008.
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